. The basics come back to exercise, nutrition and lifestyle
. Quit smoking, avoid stress, minimise alcohol and stay active
. Develop a diet that sources items from the five key food groups
This is an overview of the basics of heart health. The core tenets are exercise, nutrition and lifestyle. I’m sure many of you have heard the basics but it’s good to remind ourselves from time to time.
For a change, we’ll start with lifestyle. It’s paramount to remove stress from your life. While often easier said than done, everything else will flow from the basic philosophy.
Control the controllables, enjoy the simplicities and make it a point to spend time with your loved ones. You will be amazed at how much better you feel once you cut negativity out of your life.
Read a book, go for a walk, spend time outdoors and genuinely try and make time each week to unwind. It’s impossible to stay ‘up’ all the time and you need that break mentally which helps you physically.
The other major steps you can take are to quit smoking, reduce alcohol and stay active. If you can do some sort of physical activity two to three times a week, cut out smoking and take alcohol in moderation you will go a long way to reducing the risk of heart disease.
According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) smoking is the most ‘preventable cause of ill health and death in Australia’ but the good news is that the message is getting through. Eleven per cent of people aged 14 and over smoked regularly in 2019 which is down from 24 per cent in 1991.
That’s a positive trend line and one that is certainly good for the long term health of the nation. But alcohol is obviously the other lifestyle choice that needs to be kept in moderation to prevent not just anti-social behaviour but also to prevent any long-term health issues from arising.
According to the AIHW one in four people consumes alcohol at a level that places them in harm on a single occasion and one in six people takes alcohol at levels that places their long term health in jeopardy and these are obviously slightly concerning statistics. But the key is obviously moderation and common sense, and if you apply those two principles you should be fine.
The next point we will look at is nutrition. The key point with nutrition is balance. You have to develop a balanced diet that gives you sufficient nutrients and energy from all the key food groups.
As a general rule, a balanced diet is considered to be one that takes the key elements of the five food groups of vegetables, fruit, grains and cereals, dairy such as milk, cheese and yoghurt and the group that provides much needed protein such as lean meats, poultry, fish and eggs.
If you make it a point of sourcing the key elements from those five food groups on a regular basis you will be well on your way to achieving a well balanced diet which will certainly go a long way to preserving your long term health.
But there is certainly some work to do. According to the AIHW, only one in ten adults in Australia met the recommendations for daily vegetable consumption in 2017-18 and there was also an unhealthy intake of discretionary and counterproductive foods such as salt, fat and sugar.
And finally we will look at exercise. An American research paper concluded that a lack of physical activity can be responsible for over 35 chronic diseases and conditions.
These include coronary artery disease, Alzheimer’s disease and other high cardiovascular risk factors. The evidence presented suggests that a lack of physical activity increases the decline in skeletal muscle strength and cognition which can lead to ‘both shorter health span and early mortality.’
This is particularly relevant to older Australians. According to the AIHW, 75 per cent of people over the age of 65 were not sufficiently active in 2014/15. Another American research paper suggested that the evidence is there that regular physical activity is safe for older people and that a lot of the high risks ailments such as cardiovascular diseases and cognitive impairments decrease through regular exercise.
While the percentages are certainly better, younger people also need to be mindful to exercise adequately. A national health survey in 2014/15 indicated that almost one in three 18-64 year olds were not sufficiently active per the recommended 150 minutes per week while just under 15 per cent were completely inactive and did no exercise at all over the course of a week.
This is obviously a recipe for problems down the road and it’s important to get into a rhythm early on and maintain that as you get older to avoid any long term health problems that are bound to arise if you maintain an inactive and sedentary lifestyle.
According to the ABS, if ‘Australians did an extra 15 minutes of brisk walking for at least five days each week this would reduce disease burden due to physical inactivity in the population by approximately 13%.’ If this was increased to 30 minutes the burden of disease could be reduced by up to 26%.
AIHW Smoking stats
AIWH Alcohol stats
AIHW Fruit and Veg stats
NCBI: Role of Inactivity in Chronic Diseases: Evolutionary Insight and Pathophysiological Mechanisms
NCBI: Physical activity in older age: perspectives for healthy ageing and frailty
ABS health stats
AIHW fitness stats